What is Teratozoospermia? Causes & Its Treatment Options

What is Teratozoospermia? Causes & Its Treatment Options


“Teratozoospermia is a sperm disorder in which the sperm ejaculated by men is defective in shape or not formed correctly which causes fertility problems.”

What is Teratozoospermia?

According to WHO, when a man suffers from teratozoospermia,  96% of his sperm become defective or deformed and lose their ability to swim in uterus fluid. Thus the sperm loses its ability to fertilize the egg in the uterus. If at least 4% of men’s sperm are in regular shape, doctors still consider these sperm fertile, but in this situation, you may need medical help with the fertility process. Furthermore, according to Kruger’s Strict Criteria, if the no. of healthy sperm is about 14%,  a man can naturally impregnate his partner.

According to Some Studies, Normal and Healthy Sperm Should have these qualities

  • Oval Shaped head with no liquid drops on heads
  • A Clear and Clean Cape covering almost 40% to 70% of the head
  • A regular-looking strong neck with one tail
  • The length of healthy sperm should be 5-6 micrometers, and the width should be 2.5-3.5 micrometers
  • The quantity of Sperm should be 15 million or more per millimeter of semen

The above qualities may differ in the Sperm that have abnormalities due to teratozoospermia. In addition, abnormal Sperm may have two tails, misshapen heads, and a variety of shapes; these sperm morphologies can be identified via seminogram and semen analysis by a fertility expert.

Quick Takeaway –

Teratozoospermia is a sperm defect that causes male fertility issues. A man suffering from it must get proper medical treatment to reduce its effect on his fertility. In addition, he should also avoid behaviour and practices which cause teratozoospermia & low sperm count, like drinking alcohol & smoking. Also, try to follow advice from your doctor and adopt a healthy diet and lifestyle for better results from your treatment.

Now let’s get a  detailed overview of Teratozoospermia or Teratospermia and its causes and cure.

Normal Sperm Morphology and Fertility

A typical range for normal sperm morphology is 4-14%, which can vary. A score under 4% may make it harder to conceive. Low sperm count is the leading cause of male infertility, but sperm shape (morphology) can also play a role. Poor morphology can make it harder to conceive, but with the help of a fertility doctor, most men can still become fathers. IVF, IUI, and ICSI are options for those with sperm morphology issues. Studies have shown that taking antioxidant-rich fertility pills for 3 months or more can improve sperm shape

Types of Defective Sperm


Types of Teratozoospermia

The primary classification of teratozoospermia according to sperm morphology and percentage, it is classified into 2 categories:

Astheno Teratozoospermia

Asthenoteratozoospermia is clinically classified as a condition with reduced sperm motility, which is very common in men suffering from immotile ciliary syndrome and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.

Oligo Astheno Teratozoospermia

Oligo Astheno teratozoospermia combines Asthenoteratozoospermia, teratozoospermia & Oligozoospermia (low sperm count). It is a common cause of fertility issues in men, generally caused by infection, abnormal hormone problems, lifestyle choices & Genetic factors.


Is teratozoospermia serious? Yes, teratozoospermia can take a very serious form, so doctors have divided it into three more types based on the level of severity-

  1. Mild teratozoospermia– If you have mild teratozoospermia, you still have around 10-14 percent of sperms that are in shape.
  2. Moderate teratozoospermia– The category of moderate teratozoospermia shows that you only have 5 to 9 percent of sperm in good shape.
  3. Severe teratozoospermia– In this category of teratozoospermia; you only have 5 percent of sperm in good shape. And this severity needs immediate medical attention from doctors.


Types of Teratozoospermia

The curability of teratozoospermia directly depends on its cause of it. So, if you have a problem due to injuries, drug abuse, stress, or alcohol abuse. You can get back to normal conditions by making some lifestyle changes and by having some oral medications which are prescribed by doctors.

Causes of Teratozoospermia

What is the reason for teratozoospermia? There are lots of factors that can cause the condition of Teratozoospermia in men.

  • Genetic Factors: Teratozoospermia is a genetic disease you can inherit from your father and transfer to your children, which can’t be cured. You might need treatment and assistance from medical techniques like IVF and IUI to impregnate your female partner. Some Genetic defects like cryptorchidism and Klinefelter syndrome affect sperm production in the body.
  • Environmental Factors: Your surrounding environment also affects quality, motility and the Count of sperm. This environmental factor may include toxic environments, exposure to radiation and Heat. Some ecological effects introduced by your daily habit increase the temperature in the testicle area, like wearing Tight clothes and spending time in saunas and hot tubes.
  • Lifestyle Factors: Bad lifestyle choices also significantly cause teratozoospermia in men. Habits like drinking alcohol, Smoking Weed, Marijuana and consumption of tobacco severely affect the quality & quantity of sperm
  • Medical Conditions: Medical conditions and treatments such as chemotherapy and varicocelectomy can negatively impact sperm quality in men. Hormone-based medications that interact with FSH, testosterone, and GnRH can also alter sperm production. Additionally, testicle infections and testicular pain can contribute to decreased sperm production and may result in varicocele or other health issues. Certain diseases like diabetes, Hodgkin’s, coeliac, and Crohn’s can also affect sperm morphology.
  • Age: Sperm quality also degrades with growing age. As a man gets older, his body loses the ability to produce and maintain sperm quality, and the morphology of sperm increases.
  • Nutritional deficiencies: Lack of certain vitamins and minerals like zinc & vitamin D in your diet can affect sperm health and lead to teratozoospermia.




However, the positive point is that teratozoospermia is curable in some conditions like wrong lifestyle causes. Where minor changes in diet, avoiding harmful habits, and doing exercises can help you with regular treatment

Symptoms of Teratozoospermia

There are no visible symptoms of Teratozoospermia in men other than having problems conceiving a baby. Thus a semen analysis or seminogram is required to check the quality & shape of sperm. Semen analysis reports can determine the cause of male infertility for doctors and whether Teratozoospermia causes it.

Diagnosis of Teratozoospermia

Before choosing the correct treatment procedure for your teratozoospermia or teratospermia, doctors can diagnose your sperm sample in a semen Analysis and check the severity level of teratozoospermia, then decide the course of your treatment.

Treatment Options for Teratozoospermia

Is Teratozoospermia Curable? This question comes first in the mind of most people. So you need to know that in many cases teratozoospermia can be treated. Three main Medical treatment options can help you conceive a baby. However, there is no 100 percent guarantee of any of them to help you conceive. But they are successful most of the time and you can give them a try.

1. Intrauterine Insemination or IUI

In this process, if the woman or the partner of the man suffering from teratozoospermia is healthy. The doctors inject the donor’s healthy semen into the uterus of the woman for successful fertilization. This is also the first choice of all couples who suffer from the problem of teratozoospermia. As the success rate of the process is high and the cost of the process is just around 12,000 INR to 17,000 INR in India.


2. In vitro fertilization(IVF)

This is also a popular treatment choice for couples who are suffering from teratozoospermia. So, the men who have mild or moderate teratozoospermia; sperms are seen under a microscope and the healthy sperms are taken out. Then these sperms are fertilized with the eggs in a petri dish, under artificial environments. As the process has a high success rate of around 43 percent; it is a popular choice for couples. However, the cost of the process of IVF lies from 1,00,000 INR to 1,30,000 INR in India.

3. Intracytoplasmic Morphologically or IMSI

It is a very advanced technology and is higher in grade than Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection. As in this process, the sexologist takes a much closer look over the sperms and studies them in detail; and then he chooses the best lot of sperms that can help you attain fertilization successfully.

These medical treatments are usually used for severe teratozoospermia treatment. If the patient’s sperm is not healthy or has 0 healthy sperm count a donor’s sperm can be used for treatment.

What is the Meaning of 0 Morphology?

This is the extreme and the most severe condition of teratozoospermia, in which there are 0 or no healthy sperm at all in the semen of men. Also, this condition is very difficult to cure. So, if a man who suffers from this severe condition of teratozoospermia and sperm morphology wants to have a child. Then IUI or IVF is the only option that can help them conceive, by using donor sperm.

Does Teratozoospermia cause male infertility?

Yes, Teratozoospermia can become a major cause of male infertility. However, you don’t need to panic about your fertility problem. Get a proper diagnosis from a fertility expert to get a detailed view of your fertility issue. After the checkup and Diagnosis of other infertility causes, Your fertility expert may turn toward the Diagnosis of sperm. A doctor can take a test to check sperm under a microscope. Check the defects in the Sperm’s tail, midpiece, or head of the Sperm.

Natural Treatment & Prevention

In this process, as the name suggests, you have to make some lifestyle changes such as quitting alcohol and smoking are the primary things to be done. Also, you should intake fruits that are rich in amino acids, antioxidants, and L-Carnitine as they help improve the fertility of men. Also, you should eat a lot of Vitamin E and omega 3-rich food items; to help you increase male fertility by increasing sperm production in you. You can also add Vitamin E supplements to your diet, which should be only done after consulting a doctor or sexologist.


There are many sperm-related problems like Hypogonadism and Azoospermia, along with morphology in sperm that affects a man’s fertility. A lot of men these days go through a lot of sexual and intimate problems which they are shy to talk about with other people. But also at the same time, they are highly ashamed and frustrated by the condition. So, if you are one of them and want to have a permanent and efficient solution to your problems. Check out the official page of Ohman and order the products that you feel can help you. Also, they deliver all the medicines to you in a highly confidential way to your doorsteps.

Frequently Asked Questions About Teratozoospermia –

  1. Can you get pregnant with teratozoospermia?
    Ans – Yes, Pregnancy is possible with medical procedures like IUI and IVF, but Natural Pregnancy depends upon men’s sperm quality and motility.
  2. Does teratozoospermia cause birth defects?
    Ans – No, Teratozoospermia or Teratospermia does not cause any kind of birth defect in babies. However, It is a genetic condition that means your baby might develop this condition in the future.
  3. How common is teratozoospermia in men?
    Ans – Teatozoospermia or Teratospermia is a prevalent male infertility problem in men. In Teratospermia, more than 4% of sperm is deformed or has some kind of morphology that leads to infertility in men.

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